Dhammapada 12

Yamaka Vagga

Vocabulary 1
Vocabulary 2
sārañca: (a) euphonic combination of (sg acc. nt.) sāraṁ ‘truth, right view, substance’ + ca ‘and;’ (b) sāraṁ is the sg. nom. and acc. of sāra (nt.) ‘substance, truth’
sārato: (a) (adv., dat.) from right view, from truth, from essence; (b) derived from sāra (nt.) ‘right view, truth, essence;’ (c) as the substance (Sarao, 2009:15)
ñatvā (absol. of √ña ‘to know’ = having known, after knowing
asārañca: (i) sāra (nt.) = substance, a- (neg. pf.) + sāra= asāra; (ii) wrong view (nt.) substanceless; ca (indef. encl. part.) = and; asārañ + ca = asārañca
asārato: (i) sāra (nt.) = substance. a (neg. pf.) + sāra = asārato (adv.) = as the substanceless; (ii) from wrong view;
te: (masc. nom. pl. of  demonstr. pron. ta ‘it, that’ = they.
sāraṁ: (a) (nt. acc.) truth, lit. substance, essence; (b) formed from sāra ‘truth, lit. substance, essence’ + (an acc. suffix of sg. nt.)
adhigacchanti: 3rd. pl. pres. act. indic. derived from adhi (pf.) ‘towards’ + √gam ‘ go’ = get, discover
sammāsakappagocarā: (a) holding right thoughts


1sārañca: (a) euphonic combination of (sg acc. nt.) sāraṁ ‘essence, substance, truth’ + (indef. encl. part.) ca ‘and;’ b) sāraṁ is the sg. nom. and acc. of sāra (nt.) ‘essence, substance, truth;’ (c) the niggahīta in sāraṁ is changed into which ñ, which is the nasal which belongs to the class of the initial palatal consonant c in ca, as written by:
Tilbe (1899:10-11) that when niggahīta () meets either a vowel or consonant, the group may remain intact;a.2 niggahīta may be elided; a vowel following niggahīta may be elided; or one of the following changes may occur (with the examples in the parentheses given by the present author):
(1) niggahīta preceding a vowel generally changes to m;.a.1 or if the vowel is e, the group changes to ññ;a4(ii)
(2) niggahīta followed by a mute [mute sonants: (i) gutturals: g, gh; (ii) palatals: j, jh; (iii) linguals (or retroflex): ḍ,h; (iv) dentals: d, dh, (v) labials: b, bh; (vi) liquids:a.5 y, r, ļ, v; (vii) aspirant: h)] is generally changed to the nasal (ń, ñ, ṇ, n, or m) of the class (guttural: ń,a.3 palatal: ñ,1.4 lingual (or retroflex):, dental: n; or labial: m) to which the mute belongs;a
(3) when niggahīta is followed by y, the group may become ññ;b or
(4) when niggahīta precedes h, it may change to ñ.a.3(iii)

asaṁ- or saṃ-, an indeclinable prefix to verbal roots:* (1) implying a conjunction, e.g., with, together;’ (2) denoting (i) ’completeness,’  (opposite vi-):
(a)Duroiselle (1915/1997:14, No. 38) writes that the niggahīta when followed by a consonant may remain unchanged.
     (ix) ta dhamma kata; (ii) ta khaa; (iii) ta patto
     (m) Nasal-nasal: a nasal consonant (ń, ñ, ṇ, n, or m) followed by another nasal consonant, is assimilated to the latter: saṁ-nisīdati > sannisīdati ‘he sinks down’ (Perniola, 2001:23, No.15(a);

a.1sam-: (a) before a labial (b, bh, m, p, or ph) [(i) thus forming nasal-nasal (Perniola, idem.) (ii) niggahīta, followed by a consonant, may be transformed into the nasal of the class to which that consonant belongs (Duroiselle, idem., p. 14, No.39)]: Sambuddha (saṁ- + buddha,*), sampajāna ‘attentive, thoughtful, mindful, deliberate’ (sa + pajāna ‘understanding, distinguishing’)


(b) before a vowel: samativijjhati, derived from saṁ– +ativijjhati ‘(it) penetrates,’ samacchati ‘(she, she, or it, or one) sits together,’ derived from saṁ- + acchati ‘(she, he, it or one) sits

*Sambuddha: (a) saṁ- + buddha, which is derived from budh ‘to enlighten’ + -ta (a past participle suffix; if formed from a transitive verb, it makes a passive meaning ; otherwise, it forms an active meaning) = budhta > buddha ‘enlightened.’ This is as written by Perniola [idem., p. 17, No.13(a)] that when  two mute consonants come together, the first is assimilated to the second since both are of the same strength:
yuj-ta > yutta ‘joined’
 mad-ta > matta ‘intoxicated’
tadkāro > takkāro ‘he who does that’
sat-puriso > sappuriso ‘good man.’

The consonant t, however, preceded by one of the soft aspirate consonants gh, dh, or bh, is first shortened to d and then assimilation takes place:
labh-tum > labh-dum > laddhum ‘to bobtain’
lubh-ta > lubhda > luddha ‘greedy’
budh-ta > budh-da > buddha ‘enlightened ;’

(b) Duroiselle (ibid.,p 18, No.63) writes that   when initial t follows a sonant aspirate (gh, jh, ḍh, dh, or bh),  the assimilation is progressive: the final sonant aspirate loses its aspiration, the following t (surd) becomes sonant, viz. d, and, taking the aspiration which the final sonant has lost, becomes dh:



a.2saṁ– before (i) a surd (or sibilant)  (s), labial (b, bh, m, p, or ph), or glide (or semi-vowel) (y,* or v):, e.g., saṁsara, Saṁbuddha,* saṁyojana,b saṁyutta;b

Remark: In the case of final bh, initial t having become dh, regressive assimilation takes place: √labh + ta = labh + da = lab + dha = laddha ‘(having) taken, obtained, received;’ (labhati ‘obtains, takes, receives’)
a.2.1 by assimilation, also san– before a dental (d, dh, t, th, or n), e.g., santapeti, sandahati;
a.3saṅ– or saṇ: (a) before a guttural (or velar) (k, kh, g, gh, and ṅ) or aspirate (h), e.g.,  (i)saṅgha ‘assembly, community, brotherhood, sisterhood, order, or a chapter of a certain Buddhist order, or a certain number of monks;’  (ii) saṅkhāra, saṅkhata, asaṅkheyya; (iii) saha ‘smooth, gentle, mild,’ (Andersen, 1907/2020:253); saheti ‘to brush down’ (Davids & Stede 1921-1925/2005, Part VII, p.131);’ (b) before retroflex, or cerebral:,h, ṭ, ṭh, or : saṁ+hiṭṭhati > saṇṭhiṭṭhati ‘stands;’ saṁ+hānaṁ > saṇṭhānaṁ ‘position’ (called as assimilation or adaptation by Perniola, 1997:14, No. 11(b)]
a.4sañ-: (i) before a palatal (c, ch, j, jh, or ñ), e.g., sañcarati [also found in Perniola, 1997:14, No.11(b)], sañchidati ‘to cut, ‘to destroy,’ sañjāti ‘birth, origin, outcome;’ sañjagghati ‘to joke,’ sañña ‘perception,’ viññū ‘intelligent, wise, learned, knowledgable;’ (ii) before a word beginning with e and the  ñ, the initial e changes into ññ: ta+eva= taññeva, paccantaraṁ+eva= paccantaraññeva; (iii) before a word beginning with h: eva hi kho= evañhi kho, ta+hitassa= tañhitassa (Duroiselle,1915/1997:14, No.40) [see also a.3(iii)];
a.5(i)sal– before the liquids l, ļ or ļh, e.g., sallakhetti ‘to observe,’ sallapati ‘to talk with;’ sa-before the liquid r, sometimes sā-, e.g., sāratta, sārambha (Davids & Stede 1921-1925/2005, Part IV:114,  Geiger & Norman, 2005, § 74.3, & the present author’s  own research);
(ii) Before initial l, the niggahīta of sa and pu is changed to l:
(i) saṁ+lakkhaṇā=sallakkhaṇā; (ii) paṭi saṁ līno=paṭisallīno; (iii) saṁ+lekko=sallekho (Duroiselle, 1915/1997:14, No.39); (iv)
puṁ+ligaṁ=pulligaṁ (idem., No.39);
a.6 Duroiselle( idem., No.39) writes that the niggahīta, when followed by a consonant, may be transformed into the nasal of the class to which that consonant belongs.
EXAMPLES with (the explanatory notes in the parentheses being added by the present author):
(xxxiii) raṇaṁ+jaho=ranañjaho (ñ belongs to the guttural (or velar) consonant class or group, consisting of g, gh, k, kh, and ń);
(xxxiv) taṇhaṁ+karo=taṇhańkaro;
(xxxv) saṁ+ṭhito=saṇṭhito (ṇ belongs to the cerebral or retroflex) consonant class or group, consisting of ṭ, th, ḍ, ḍh, and ṇ);
(xxxvi) jutiṁ+dharo=jutindharo (n belongs to the dental consonant class or group, consisting of d, dh, t, th, and n);
(xxxvii) saṁ+mato=sammato (m belongs to the (bi-)labial consonant class or group, consisting of b, bh, p, ph, and m);
(xxxviii) evaṁ+kho=evań kho [see (i)];
(xxxix)dhammaṁ+ca=dhammañca (ñ belongs to the palatal consonant class or group, consisting of c, ch, j, jh, and ñ);
(xl) taṁ+niccutaṁ=taññiccutaṁ;

bsaṁ- + yogo: the niggahīta following y is assimilated into the y, and both together may become ññ: saññogo
saṁ- + yutta: saññutta
Often, no coalescence takes place, and both letters remain unchanged:
saṁyuttaṁ, saṁyojanaṁ (Duroiselle, 1915/1997:14, No.41).

Examples taken by the present author from the other stanzas of the Dhammapada:
31: saṁyojanaṁ >saññojanaṁ
37: saṁyamessanti > saññamessanti

*(Davids & Stede, 1921-1925/2005, Part IV:114,  Geiger & Norman, 2005, § 74.3, & Tjan’s own research)

Davids & Stede (ibid.) writes that saṁ- (or sa) is the second most frequently (16%) used prefix in Pali after vi- (19%).

2sarato: (a) (adv., dat.) from right view, from truth, from essence; (b) derived from sāra (nt.) ‘right view, truth, essence;’ (c) as the substance (Sarao, 2009:15); (d)
an optional form of sārantassa ‘from, for, or of, one who has right view,’ which is an ablative case and also a genitive case of a noun or adjective ending in -a; the entire suffix -ntu and the inflection endings -sa, -smi, and nā, are changed to -to, -ti, and tā, respectively. Examples: gunavantassa > gunavato ‘of or for one who has virtue; gunavantu+-smiṁ > gunavati ‘in one who has virtue;’ gunavantu+ -nā > gunavatā (Kaccayana, § 127.102)

4te sāraṁ adhigacchanti: (a) they discover (or encounter) truth (or essence); (b) a general word order of a Pali full sentence: te ‘they,’ the subject, nominative of so ‘he’ + sāraṁ ‘truth, essence,’ the object, or accusative of sāra ‘truth, essence,’ + adhigacchanti, pl. 3rd. pers. act. pres. active indic. voice of adhigaccha ‘to come into possession of, to acquire, discover, to attain, (fig.) to understand’ + -nti, 3rd. pers. pl. personal ending (Duroiselle, 1915/1997:86, 1st conjugation, No. 381); (c) adhigaccha is derived from adhi ‘towards, above, over’ + gaccha ‘goes;’ (d) gaccha belongs to irregular bases of the seventh conjugation, as written by Duroiselle (idem, p. 93, No. 404):
404. The roots of the seventh conjugation, as has been remarked above (379), have two bases: one in e and one in aya, which are conjugated exactly like the roots of the third class of the first conjugation (see 393).

Irregular Bases
Some roots form their special bases according to none of the above given rules, and they are in consequence called Irregular.
The principal forms are here given:
Roots                                            Special bases
√gam, to go                                      gaccha
√yam, to restrain                               yaccha
√guh, to hide                                     gūhe
√dhā, to hold                                daha, dhe (391)
√dā, to give                                       dajja
√jā, jan, to be born                            jāya
√pā, to drink                                     piva
√ḍaṁs, to bite                                   ḍasa
√dhmā, to blow                                 dhama
√vyadh (=vadh)                                vadha
√sad, to sit                                       sīda
√ṭhā, to stand                                   tiṭṭhā
√is, to wish                                       iccha
√vad, to speak, say               vajja, vajje, vada, vāde
√mar, to die                             miya, miyya, mara
√gah to take, seize                           gheppa*
√gam, to go                             ghamma, gaggha*
√jir, to gow old, decay                     jiya, jiyya
√dis, das to see                          dakkha, daccha*

*These forms are given by the Saddanīti and the Akhyatapadamālā. They are regularly conjugated like gaccha: ghammāmi, ghammasi ghammati, etc.; ghagghami, ghagghasi ghagghati, etc.; ghammeyya, gagghe, gaggheyya, etc. The bases dakkha and daccha from √da, dis are formed on the false analogy of the future base, which we shall see when treating of the future. Most of the changes noticed above correspond to similar changes which occur in the 1st, 4th and 6th Conjugations of Sanskrit verbs.

5sammāsaṅkappaā: (a)(1) (pl. 3rd. pers. nom.) fig. holding right thoughts; (2) the fig. meaning is derived from the analogy of the construction (i) X-pakata ‘done or made out of X, (ii) X-ja ‘be born of X, (iii) X-nidāna ‘having X as the source of origin,’ (iv) X-vipāka ‘having X as result or fruit,’ (v) X-samudaya ‘having X as the origin, or arising from X, or the origin of X’ (Gair & Karunatillake, 2014:28), but (vi) X-gamin (fem. gaminī) ‘leading to X, going to X,’ (vii) x-jāta ‘having become X’ (idem, p.160), (viii) X-deva ‘having X as god, highly respecting X’ (idem., p.161); (ix) (Davids & Stede (1924:32, Part III) kamāvacara ‘having its province in kāma’

(b) euphonic union, or sandhi, of sammā (3rd. pers. pl. adjective) ‘right, correct’ + sakappa (sg. masc.) ‘thought’ + gocarā ‘(those who are) wandering, roaming, (those cows which are) grazing;’ © gocarā is derived from go (masc.) ‘cow” + carā (pl. adj. and agent noun or doer*) ‘(those who are) walking, wandering, roaming, (lit. those cows which are) grazing’ (action noun) ‘destination, or place, of wandering or roaming or walking, pasture, grazing field, a cow’s grazing,;’ (d) gocarā is 3rd. pl. nom. and adj. of gocara (3rd person. sg. nom. and adj.) ‘(one who is) walking, roaming, wandering, (lit. that cow which is) grazing, roaming.
*Duroiselle (1915/1997:141-142, Nos. 576-578) writes:
(i)         Primary Derivatives (kita)
575. As has been said already Primary Derivatives are formed directly from the roots by means of certain suffixes; these suffixes are called kita suffixes.
576. The kita suffixes are given below in alphabetical order to faciliate reference.
a – (a) (ṇ) (a). By means of this suffix are formed an extremely large number of derivatives, some of which take guṇa and some of which do not. It forms nouns, (substantive and adjective) showing:
1st-action: √pac, to cook+a=pāka, the act of cooking; √caj, to forsake+a=cāga, forsaking, abandonment; √bhaj, to divide+a=bhāga, dividing; √kam, to love+a=kāma, love.
2nd- the doer or agent: √car, to roam+a=cāra and cara, a spy; √har, to take, captivate,+a=hara, the Captivator, a name of Shiva; √kar, to do, make+a=kara, that which does, the hand; also kāra, a doer, maker.
3rd- abstract nouns of action: √kar+a=kara, action, making; √kam to step, proceed+a=kama, step, succession, order; √kamp, to shake+a=kampa, shaking, trembling; √yuj, to join+a=yoga, joining.
4th- It forms adjectives: √kar+a=kāra, doing, making, also kara, causing, making; √car, to walk, roam, cāra, walking, roaming, and also cara, do; √plu, to swim, float+a=plava, swimming, floating.
The student will readily understand that the root may be preceded by any prefix: saṁ+√gam+a=saṅgāma, assembly; pa+√vis, to enter+a=pavesa, entrance; anu+√sar to go, move, walk+a=anusara, following. The same remark applies to all the other suffixes.
577. From the adjectives formed by this suffix (4th), are formed the upapada compounds (552): kammakāro=kammaṁ kāro (kammaṁ karotī’ ti), the doer of the act; kumbhakāro=khumbhaṁ kāro (kumbhaṁ karotī’ti), the maker of the pot, potter.
588. Very similar in nature with the upapada compounds are those compounds which are the names of persons. In our opinion they are purely and simply upapadas, but Kacchāyana has the following rule: “saññāyaṁ a nu” that is, to form a proper name, suffix nu (=ṁ=Accus. case) is added to the 1st member of the compound, which is the direct object of the root which forms the 2nd member and after which the suffix a is added to denote the agent: arindama, the subduer of his enemies=ari, enemy+ṁ (nu)+√dam, to subdue+a. So vessantara, who has crossed over to the merchants, (vessa+ṁ (nu)+√tar, to cross+a); taṇhaṅkara, creating desire=tanhā, desire+ṁ (nu)+kar+a. The name of a Buddha.
It will be seen from the above examples that the 1st member is in the Acc. case and is governed by the 2nd member which is an agent-noun formed by the suffix a.
Remarks: The nouns formed by a are masculine: they form the feminine according to rules (183), and the same applies to the adjectives (197).

English 1:

English 2:

They who have rightly discerned the true in its truth and the false in its falsity. They attain the goal of truth and abide in the pasture-ground of right thinking.

Those who know the essential to be essential and the unessential to be unessential, dwelling in right thoughts, do arrive at the essential.

Indonesia 1:

Indonesia 2:

Barang siapa menganggap sesuatu yang hakiki sebagai hakiki, sesuatu yang tak hakiki sebagai tak hakiki; mereka yang mempunyai pikiran benar semacam itu niscaya akan memperoleh apa yang hakiki.

Setelah mengetahui dari yang hakiki sebagai hakiki, dan dari yang bukan hakiki sebagai bukan hakiki. Mereka yang bersekutu dengan pikiran benar (seperti itu) akan memahami yang hakiki.

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