Dhammapada 2

Yamaka Vagga


 

Vocabulary 1

Vocabulary 2

manopubbaṅgamā: (pl. nt. nom.) directed, or controlled by mind; having mind as the director or controller

dhammā: (a) mental phenomena, the cetasikas; (b) masc. pl.nom. of dhamma, mental phenomenon

manoseṭṭhā: (a) (who, or what, are) led by mind, mind is their chief or best; (b) short form of manoseṭṭhā dhammā ‘mental phenomena (which) are led by mind, or mind is the chief of mental phenomena’

manomayā: produced or created by mind

manasā: (sg. nt. ins.) by or with mind

ce (encl.) = if

pasannena: (sg. inst.) clear with joy and faith; purified, pleased; believing, trusting, full of faith or devotion

manasā pasannena: (sg. masc. inst.) with the mind being clear with joy and faith; with a purified, believing, trusting, pious, or virtuous mind

 bhāsati: (a) (she, he, or one) speaks; (b) sg. 3rd pers. pres. act. indic. of √bhās ‘to speak’ + -a + -ti

(encl.) = or; when repeated: = either…or…

karoti: (a) (she, he, or one) acts, does, makes; (b) sg. 3rd pers. pres. act. indic. of √kar ‘to act, to do, to make’ + -o + -ti

bhāsati: (a) (she, he, or one) speaks; (b) sg. 3rd. pr. act. indic. of √bhās ‘to speak’ + -a + -ti

(encl.) = or; when repeated: = either…or…

tato: (a) hence, then, from this, from that, thereupon, thereafter; (b) sg. abl. of pron. base ta ‘it, this, that’ but used here as an adv.

naṁ: (a) him, that one; (b) sg. masc. acc. of the demonstr. pron. ta ‘he, this, that’

sukhamanveti:: (a) happiness follows; (b) a euphonic union, or sandhi, of (nt.) sukha ‘happiness’ + – (a suffix indicating a sg. nt. nom. & acc. and sg. masc. acc.) + anveti ‘follows’

chāyāva: (a) like a shadow, or shade; (b) chāyā ‘shadow, shade’ + va ‘like’

anapāyinī: faithful, never-departing

chāyāva anapāyinī: like a faithful shadow

Pali Grammar:

1.1manoseṭṭhā: mana(-s) (nt.) = mind; seṭṭha (adj.) excellent, best; manas + seṭṭha= manoseṭṭha* (adj.) (one who has) mind as the best, i.e., mind as a master or leader;
manoseṭṭhā (pl. masc. nom.) = (those who have) mind as a master or leader.

* manoseṭṭha: (a) a kammadhāraya samāsa [Perniola, 1915/1997:165(c)], contraction of manas+seṭṭha, with manas changing its final -as to -o; in many cases, however, the stem has passed to the thematic stem: āpas-maya > āpomaya ‘made of water’ [ibid., p. 159(i)]

1.2 manomayā: (i) the cetasikas, or mental concomitants (Narada & Pereira, 1940:1); (ii) manomaya* (adj.) = (which is) produced by mind;

manomayā
(pl. masc. nom.) = (which are) produced by mind; (iii) Contrast the cpd manomayā with cittakataṁ ‘decorated’ (in Stanza 147)

*manomaya: (i) a tappurisa samāsa [Perniola, 1915/1997:165(c)],  contraction of manas+maya, with manas changing its final -as to -o; in many cases, however, the stem has passed to the thematic stem: āpas-maya > āpomaya ‘made of water [ibid., p. 159(i)]

1.3the singular instrumental case of mano; Geiger  (2005, § 79, p.72.1) writes,”Not rare are the sg. instrumentals in –asā, formed on the analogy of as- stems on the basis of the equation mano:manasā = dhammo: x. Examples are found especially in the first two periods of the language, and again in the artificial poetry: they are rare in the post-canonical prose. Cf. balasā ‘with force’ instead of balena) Th 1141; damasā   beside damena Sn 655; padasā ‘on foot’ (instead of padena) Ja III 300.29 ….; manasā= manena, instrumentative case of mana ‘mind;’ manasā is canonical, and manena is post-canonical.

1.4 (i) pasannena: (a) pasanna (adj. derived from pa-, a pf. often used to emphasize the intensity of an action) + √sad ‘to sit’ = virtuous; manasā pasannena* (sg. masc. inst.= with a (totally) virtuous mind (Sarao, 2009:4);
(b) euphonic combination or union, or sandhi,* of pasanna and the 3rd. pers. sg. masc. or neuter instrumentative suffix -ena ‘with, by,’ with the elision or suppression sometimes of the final vowel in the first word (Tilbe, 1899:7, No.67), in this case pasanna, or of either the final vowel in the first word or the initial vowel of the second word, e.g., pana ime ‘but these’ > either paname or panime (Clough, 1824:9, No.18),  or pana’me; tena+ime = tena’me (Duroiselle, 1915/1997:8, No. 21(b));  (b) when two different vowels come together, in this matter the final a in pasanna and the initial e in –ena, usually the first, i.e., the final a, is elided and the second vowel, i.e., the initial e is lengthened if it happens to be in an open syllable: purisa ‘man’ + -ena > purisena ‘with a man;’ buddha-uppādo > buddhuppādo ‘the arising of a buddha;’ mano-indriya > manoindriya ‘the faculty of the mind.’

*euphonic combination or union, or sandhi:: Perniola (1997:7) writes that in the formation of a word, when two vowels come together, they are generally not allowed to remain (unchanged), but: 1) they are contracted into one, or b) one of them is elided, or c) a sonant vowel (i, ī, u, ū) is changed into its corresponding semivowel (y or v, as the case may be), or d) a consonant is inserted between them.

(ii) Manasā ce paduṭṭhena (Stanza 1) and manasā ce pasannena (Stanza 2): Manasā here means intention or volition (cetanā): volition leads one to the performance of volitional actions, both good and evil. This volition and the resultant actions constitute kamma; and kamma always follows one to produce result (Tin, 2003:1).

7naṁ: a common substitute of taṁ, a neuter personal pronoun and also a demonstrative personal pronoun [Duroiselle, 1915/1997:70, No.294 and (c)]; the letter n  generally substitutes for the initial t in any case of the three personal pronouns (or genders) so, sā, and taṁ where t occurs, and the middle t of any case of the three demonstrative pronouns eso, esā, and eta where t occurs, e.g., tassa, tassā, ta, etassa, etassā, etaṁ, (ibid., No. 295):

masculine feminine neuter
nassa = tassa nāya = tāya naṁ = taṁ
nena = tena nassā = tassā nena = tena
naṁ = taṁ nassāya = tassāya naṁ = taṁ
nasmā = tasmā nassaṁ = tassaṁ nasmā =

 

tasmā

nasmiṁ = tasmiṁ nāyaṁ = tāyaṁ nasmiṁ =

 

tasmiṁ

ne = te nā = tā, tāyo ne = te
nehi = tehi nāhi = tāhi nehi = tehi
nesaṁ = tesaṁ nāsaṁ = tāsaṁ nesaṁ =

 

tesaṁ

Duroiselle (ibid., No. 296) also writes that the forms with n above given are generally used when a noun has been already mentioned.
In the present stanza and Stanza 2, na refers to bhāsati ‘one who speaks’ or karoti ‘one who acts.’
Duroiselle (ibid., No. 301) further writes that eso, esā, and etaṁ (decitic markers) may sometimes be translated into that.

3 sukhamanveti: derived from the union of sukha, the sg. nom. case of sukha3.1 [in this context, meaning happiness, satisfactoriness, fortune, etc., and rebirth in the three upper planes of happy existence (Tin, 1956:1)] + anveti ‘to follow’ [with the niggahīta  (ṁ) changing to m when it precedes a word beginning with a vowel (Duroiselle, 1915/1997:15, No.42): taṁ+ atthaṁ= tamatthaṁ; yaṁ+ahu= yamahu; kiṁ+etaṁ= kimetaṁ.

3.1 Declension of sukha, a neuter noun

cases Singular Plural
nominative sukhaṁ sukkhāni,

 

sukhā

genitive sukhassa sukhānaṁ
dative sukhassa

 

sukhāya

sukhānaṁ
accusative sukhaṁ sukhāni,

 

sukhe

instrumentative sukhena sukhehi, sukhebhi*
ablative sukhā

 

sukhamā

sukehi, sukhebhi,* sukhamhā
locative sukhe

 

sukhasmiṁ

sukhamhi

sukhesu
vocative sukha sukhāni, sukhā

Remarks:

  • Ni is essentially the distinctive sign of neuter nouns in the nom., acc., and voc. Plur. In all declensions.
  • (b) the final vowel of the stem is lengthened before ni.
  • * The suffix ebhi is poetic (ibid., p. 27(f), No. 122, or archaic (Geiger, 1916/2005:73)

More about niggahīta and its changes

Dueroiselle (ibid.) remarks:   Rules 39 and 42 are not strictly adhered to in texts edited in Roman characters; in prose above all, niggahīta  is allowed to remain unchanged before a vowel or consonant, even in the middle of a vowel sometimes; in poetry, the retention of niggahīta  or its change to m before a vowel is regulated by the exigencies of the metres.

Duroiselle (ibid., No. 43) also writes:” Sometimes niggahīta  before a vowel may become d: (i) eta+attho= atadattho; (ii) eta+eva+ etadeva; (iii) eta+avoca= etadavoca; (iv) ya+anantara= yadannantaram; (v) ya+idam= yadidam

Duroiselle (ibid, Nos. 44-46) further writes:” Niggahīta  before a vowel or consonant may be elided; niggahīta  may sometimes be inserted before a vowel or consonant; a vowel may be elided after niggahīta .”

**Duroiselle (ibid., No. 27.a.) also writes:” When u is followed by a dissimilar vowel, it is changed to v: (a) anu+eti*= anveti; (b) dhātu+anta= dhātvanta; (c) dhātu+attha= dhātvattha; (d) bahu+ābādho= bahvābādho; (e) su+ agata= svagata; (f) anu+aḍḍhamasa= anvaḍḍhamasaṁ.”

Another example (by the present author): su+akkhāta= svākkkhāta, with the lengthening of the initial a in akkhāta
*eti: formed from √i ‘go’ + -ti (a personal suffix indicating the 3rd pers. sg. act. indic. case), so that eti means goes (Davids, Part I, p.61), with the the strengthening (or guṇa) of the root √i to e (Duroiselle, ibid., pp. 22-23, Nos. 101, 105-110).

5anapāyinī: an adjective, meaning not departing, never departing, derived from:

  • an (neg. part.) = no, not + apa (pf.) = away from > apāya (masc. derived from apa (pf.) meaning ‘away from,’‘off’ + √i ‘to go’ = ‘going away’ i.e., a state of woe after death, hell. an+apāya+inī (poss. sf.) = anāpayinī (fem.) = never departing, constantly following. anāpayinī (nom.sg.) = (i) never departing, constantly following (Sarao, 2009:3-4); (ii) faithful (Wagiswara & Saunders, 1912:22);
  • anapāyinīanapāyin-, Adj.: non-departing. Possessive form of the word apāya(separation, loss) preceded by negative particle an- (not). The word apāya is derived from the verb i-, to go, preceded by the prefix apa- (away from). Nom.Sg.f. = anapāyinī (Rozehnal, ibid. Stanza 2); or
  • na* ‘no, not’ + apayin [derived from apa ‘away from, off’ +√ī ‘to go’ + -in** + -ī*** where na* changes into an- and √ī first strengthened into e and, then, into ay (Duroiselle, 1915/1997:23, Nos. 109-110) ‘going away, departing,’ an adjective].

* In an ubhe-tappurisa compound, the prefix na- changes into an- if the component word begins with a vowel (Kaccāyana, § 333-334).

** the suffix –ī (or –in or – i) forms a very great number of derivatives whose stem end in in and the sg. nom. in ī (see 137,173); they are properly possessive adjectives, sometimes used substantively. Guna, as a rule, takes place: √gah ‘to take”, to receive’ + -in= gāhin ‘taking, catching;’ √kra+-in= kārin (or karĪ) ‘doing; pāpakārī ‘sinner; √yā ‘to go’ > yāyin ‘going; nagarayāyī ‘going to the town; √dā ‘to give’ > dāyin (or dayi) ‘giving, giver. Note that y is inserted between the suffix and the roots ending in a long a (ā). The feminine is formed according to Rule No. 189 (Duroiselle, 1915/1997:143).

*** the suffix -ī (ibid.), making anapāyinī an uṇadi.

English 1:
Buddharakhita
English 2:
Tin
Mind precedes all mental states; mind is their chief. They are all mind-wrought.

 

If with a pure mind a person speaks or acts, happiness follows him like his never-departing shadow.

All mental phenomena have mind as their forerunner; they have mind as their chief; they are mind-made. If one speaks or acts with a pure mind, happiness (sukha) follows him like a shadow that never leaves him.
Indonesia 1: Bdg Indonesia 2:CDD
Segala keadaan pikiran dipimpin oleh batin. Batin adalah pemuka dan pembentuknya.

 

Jika seseorang berucap atau bertindak dengan pikiran murni, kebahagiaan niscaya akan menyertainya ibarat bayang-bayang yang selalu mengikuti dirinya.

Segala keadaan batin didahului oleh pikiran, dan dibentuk oleh pikiran. Apabila seseorang berkata

 

atau berbuat dengan pikiran bajik, oleh karena itu kebahagiaan akan mengikutinya seperti bayang-bayang yang tidak pernah meninggalkannya.

Mari teman-teman pilih mana yang paling benar. Tulis komentar dibawah ini ya…

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