Dhammapada 3

Yamaka Vagga


Vocabulary 1

Vocabulary 2

akkocchi (3rd sg. pers. aor. of √kus ‘to abuse’ = abused.

avadhi (3rd sg. pers. aor. of √vadh ‘to strike’ = struck.

ajini (3rd sg. pers. aor. of √ji ‘to conquer’= (he) conquered.

ahasi: (3rd sg. pers. aor. of √har ‘to carry away, to rob’ = (he) took away, robbed; (ii) third person singular ahāsi (from the root har ‘to take away’ (Geiger, 2005:159)

ye (pl. masc. nom. of the demonstr. pron. ya (who, which’ = who, which

taṁ (sg. masc. acc. of the demonstr. pron. ta ‘it, that’ = it, that

veraṁ: vera (nt.) =hatred. veraṁ (nom. sg.) = hatred

tesaṁ (pl. masc. gen.. of the demonstr. pron. ta (it, that’ = their

na (indec. part.) = no, not

sammati (3rd sg. pers. pres.. indic. act. of √sam ‘to be appeased’= is appeased (Sarao, 2009:4-5)

Pali Grammar

1maṁ: me, accusative case

2 me: (i) Presumably me is ablative, he took from me, he robbed from me. (Anandajoti, www.ancient-buddhist-texts.net); (ii) genitive case, ‘my (belongings)’ (Sarada,1993:68 & Na, 2020:22); (iii) genitive case (Rozehnal,ibid., Stanza 3); (iv) the form me, of the genitive, dative, instrumentative, and ablative, singular cases, is enclitic; it is never used at the beginning of a sentence (Duroiselle, 1915/1997, No.289.b); (vi) not found as any case (Tilbe, 1899:59-60); (vii) me= mama, genitive case of the first person pronoun; variant aha; -‘me= ime (Andersen: 1907, 1996 :210); (viii) the enclitic forms me and te are the instrumentative, dative, and genitive cases of the first person singular (E.Muller, 1884:86-87); (ix) sg. gen. of 1st pron. ahaṁ ‘I’ = mine (Sarao, 2009:5)

3(a)We might have expected the genitive, not the nominative, form here, yesaṁ, for those…, the line could easily be rewritten to fit the metre: yesañ-ca upanayhanti, and in the next line: yesaṁ na upanayhanti (Anandajoti, www.ancient-buddhist-texts.net); (b)(1)  upanayhanti (3rd pl. pers.pres.. indic. act.; upanayhati,  3rd sg. pers. pres.. indic. act.), derived from upa (pf. meaning ‘close by, near’+√nah ‘to bind’= bind themselves to, to bear;’ (2) upa- + nah- +-ya + -nti = upanayhanti, as written by Duroiselle (1915/1997:20, No.78) that when y follows h, a metathesis, the transposition of letters, takes place:
(i) √sah+ya=sahya, and by metathesis = sayha ‘to be conquered, to be defeated, to be overcome;’ (sahati ‘to conquer, to defeat, to overcome)
(ii) √guh+ya=guhya=guyha ‘to be hidden;’ (guhati ‘to hide, to conceal’).

Note: Perniola (1997:142©) writes that the suffix -ya has been used to form the future participle passive. It is usally, though not always, added to the root in its guṇa (or strengthening) grade:

bhid-ya > bhed-ya > bhejja ‘to be broken;’ bhuj-ya > bhoj-ya > bhojja ‘to be eaten;’ bhu-ya > bhav-ya > bhabba ‘to be capable of;’

han-ya > hañña ‘to be killed;’

√guh+ya > guhya > guyha ‘to be hidden.’

(3) nayhati: to tie, to bind; Davids (1921-1925/2005: 183, Part IV) writes that nayhati is used only in compounds with the preposition upa- as upanayhati.

sammati: 3rd sg. pers. pres. act. indic. of √sam ‘to be appeased,’ a passive voice; sammanti 3rd pl. pers. pres. act. indic.; causative sameti ‘to cause to calm;’ past part. santa

Perbandingan 4 terjemahan

English 1:
English 2:
Carter & Paliwahadana
Who bears within them enemity; “he has abused and beaten me, defeated me and plundered me”, hate is not allayed for them. ‘He reviled me! He struck me!
He defeated me! He robbed me!’
They who gird themselves up with this,
For them enmity is not quelled.
Indonesia 1:
Indonesia 2:
“Ia mencela saya, ia memukul saya, ia mengalahkan saya, ia merampok saya.” Barangsiapa menyimpan pikiran demikian, kebencian takmungkin reda. Dia mencelaku, dia memukulku, dia mengalahkanku, dia merampas milikku. Pada mereka yang menanggung rasa benci terhadap hal tersebut, kebenciannya tidak akan* menjadi reda.


*In English and Indonesian, this auxiliary verb should not be used, as this stanza refers to what is an eternal, or general, or universal, truth (https://byjus.com/question-answer/give-some-examples-of-universal-truth/)

Mari teman-teman pilih mana yang paling benar. Tulis komentar di bawah ini ya….

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