Dhammapada 5

Yamaka Vagga

Pali
Na hi verena1 verāni2 sammantīdha3 kudācanaṁ
averena4 ca sammanti
esa5 dhammo sanantano.6
Indonesian: Tjan Sie Tek
Sesungguhnya tidak pernah kebencian di dunia ini diredakan oleh permusuhan melainkan oleh avera.*
Itu** adalah kebenaran/hukum abadi.
*tiga arti sekaligus:  kesabaran, keramahan & tanpa permusuhan (Fronsdal, 2011:97)
**kata ganti anaforis (anaphoric pronoun): kata ganti yang menunjuk kepada seseorang atau ke sesuatu yang disebutkan sebelumnya di dalam sebuah tuturan.
Kata lawannya adalah kata ganti kataforis (cataphoric pronoun), yaitu kata ganti yang menunjuk kepada seseorang atau sesuatu yang (akan) disebutkan atau muncul kemudian. Contohnya adalah kata ia di kalimat yang berikut ini: karena ia rajin, Rudy berhasil dalam karirnya.
English: Tjan Sie Tek
Never is in the world enmity appeased by enmity, but (appeased) by avera.* This is an eternal** truth.
*patience, friendliness & absence of enmity
**This stanza and the one that follows do not form a pair, but seem to have been attracted into the collection at this point by word collocation on vera (Anandajoti www.ancient-buddhist-texts.net).
Vocabulary 1
Vocabulary 2
na: (indec. part.)= no, not.
hi: indeed, surely
verena: with, by, because of, or for, enmity, hostility, hatred;
verāni: (a) enmities, hostilities, hatreds; (b) pl. nt. nom of vera ‘enmity, hostility, hatred’
sammantīdha: (a) in this world calm down, become quiet or silent; (b) euphonic union, or sandhi, of sammanti ‘calm down, become quiet’ + idha (indec. adv.) ‘here, in this world,’ with the elision of the final letter i in sammanti and the lengthening of the initial letter i in idha
kudācanaṁ (indef. adv.) = at any time; na kudācanaṁ = not at any time, never
averena: (a) (sg. ins. nt.) with, by or because of (i) absence of enmity, hostility, or hatred; non-enmity, non-hostility, non-hatred; (ii) patience, friendliness, absence of enmity;
sammanti: (a) calm down, become quiet; (b) the act. indicative pres. tense for the pl. 3rd. pers. of sammati ‘calms down, becomes quiet;’ (c) sammati: is part of the verbs that seem to be passive but are actually transitive in meaning: anutappati ‘repents, miyyati ‘dies,’ paccati ‘ripens,’ dissati ‘appears’
ca: (indef. encl. part.) and, but
esa: (a) this, that; (b)(sg.masc.nom. of the demonstr. pron. eta ‘this, that’
dhammo: (a) truth, law;  (b) sg.  masc. nom. of dhamma ‘truth, law; mental phenomenon’
sanantano: (a) (sg. masc. nom.) eternal, primeval, ancient; (b) formed from the stem sanantana ‘eternal, primeval, ancient’

Pali Grammar

1verena: (a) derived from vera + -ina in which the final a in vera and the initial i in -ina combine to produce e [Duroiselle, 1915/1997:8, No.21, & p.27, No. 122(i) & Tilbe, 1899:10]; (b) euphonic combination or union, or sandhi, of vera ‘hatred, enmity’ and the 3rd. pers. sg. masc. or neuter instrumentative suffix -ena ‘with, by’ with the elision or suppression sometimes of the final vowel in the first word (Tilbe, 1899:7, No.67), in this case vera, or of either the final vowel in the first word or the initial vowel of the second word, e.g., pana ime ‘but these’ > either paname or panime (Clough, 1824:9, No.18),  or pana’me; tena+ime = tena’me (Duroiselle, 1915/1997:8, No. 21(b));  (b) when two different vowels come together, in this matter the final a in pasanna and the initial e in –ena, usually the first, i.e., the final a, is elided and the second vowel, i.e., the initial e is lengthened if it happens to be in an open syllable: purisa ‘man’ + -ena > purisena ‘with a man;’ buddha-uppādo > buddhuppādo ‘the arising of a buddha;’ mano-indriya > manoindriya ‘the faculty of the mind.’

*euphonic combination or union, or sandhi:: Perniola (1997:7) writes that in the formation of a word, when two vowels come together, they are generally not allowed to remain (unchanged), but: 1) they are contracted into one, or b) one of them is elided, or c) a sonant vowel (i, ī, u, ū) is changed into its corresponding semivowel (y or v, as the case may be), or d) a consonant is inserted between them.

2verāni: (a) pl. nt. nom. of vera + -ni ‘hatreds, enmities’ with the lengthening of the final a in vera. Duroiselle (1915/1997 :28, No. 124) writes that (a) -ni is essentially the distinctive sign of neuter nouns in the nom. acc., and voc. plur. in all declensions.
(b) The final vowel of the stem is lengthened before ni-; (b)(i) For the two forms of the pl. nom. cases of rupa and other neuters ending in a, see Duroiselle (1915/1997:27, No.123 & 124): rupa > rupā & rupāni, citta > cittā & cittāni, with the final a in the stems rupa and citta being lengthened to a before the suffix -ni; (ii) The suffix ni- is essentially the distinctive sign of neuter nouns in the pl. nom., acc., and voc. cases in all declinations [ibid., No.124(a) & (b)]; (c) the suffix ni-, when added to the root of a verb, forms a fem. noun, which is a few in number: √hā ‘to quit’, to forsake’ + -ni = hāni ‘abandonment, loss, decay; √yu ‘to fasten’, to unite’ + -ni = yoni ‘womb, origin, a form of existen’ (Duroiselle, 1915/199&;144).

–Iklan–


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3 sammantīdha: sammanti + idha,* with the suppression of the final i in sammanti and the lengthening of the initial i in idha: yāni idha > yānīdha ‘which is here;’ tatra aya > tatrāya (Clough, 1840 :9, No.19); sammanti is a passive voice or form

4averena: (a) the instrumentative case of the noun avera: absence of hate and the presence of patience and loving kindness (Fronsdal, 2011:97); (b) See also 1verena above about the euphonic union, or sandhi, of vera +-ena; averena is the opposite of verena. 

*Warder (2001:231, Lesson 24) writes that … idaṁ (a deictic marker) ‘this’ corresponds with idha ‘here, in this world’ and ettha ‘in this matter’ in that all refer to what is close to the speaker or writer concerned.

5esa: (a) Duroiselle (1915/1997: 13, No. 36) writes that (i) Before a consonant, the o in: so, eso, may be changed to a: eso dhammo or esa dhammo; so muni or sa muni; (i) Sometimes, this change occurs even before a vowel, thus creating a hiatus, which is allowed to remain: so attho or sa attho; and ©  The same change (of o to a), occurs also, but not so frequently, in: ayo (iron), mano (the mind), tamo (darkness), paro (other), tapo (penance, mortification).and a few others: ayopattaṁ or ayapattaṁ, etc.

(b)Duroiselle (ibid., No. 301) further writes that eso, esā, and etaṁ (deictic markers) may sometimes be translated into that.

(c) The deictic markers, i.e., eso ‘masculine this’, esā ‘feminine this,’ and etaṁ ‘neuter this,’ are also called as deictic pronouns by Warder (2001:29, Lesson 5, paraphrased), each of which points to someone or something present to the listeners in a direct speech, and each of which roughly corresponds to the English “this” when the object is pointed at, i.e., present. Hence, eso, esā,  and etaṁ are called as the “pronouns of presence,” as opposed to so, sā,  and taṁ ‘that,’ which are called as the “pronouns of absence,” as they are often used to speak of someone or something in a story and, therefore, absent from the listeners

6 (i)esa dhammo sanantano: This is the same as “poranako dhammo,” the doctrine followed by the Buddha and his disciple. The exhortation is not to return hatred for hatred but to conquer it by loving-kindness (absence of hatred) (Tin, 2003:3); (ii) Interestingly an alternative name for what is now known as Hinduism the sanātana (variant from of sanantana) Dharma ; this is the earliest use of the phrase I know of (Anandajoti, www.ancient-buddhist-texts.net);

English 1:
Tin

English 2:
Müller

Hatred is, indeed, never appeased by hatred in this world. It is appeased only by loving-kindness. This is an ancient law.

For hatred does not cease by hatred at any time; hatred ceases by love, this is an old rule.

Indonesia 1: CDD

Indonesia 2: YDD

Di sini (dalam dunia ini), segala kebencian tidak akan pernah menjadi reda oleh kebencian, namun mereka menjadi reda oleh keramahtamahan. Inilah hukum yang berlaku sejak dahulu kala.

Dalam dunia ini, kebencian tidak pernah dapat dilenyapkan dengan kebencian, kebencian hanya dapat* dilenyapkan dengan cinta kasih dan saling memaafkan. Ini adalah kebenaran abadi.

*In English and Indonesian, this auxiliary verb should not be used, as this stanza refers to what is an eternal, or general, or universal truth [Hands, 2011:208, No. 410; Thomson & martinet, 1986:159, No. 173(A); https://byjus.com/question-answer/give-some-examples-of-universal-truth/]

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