Dhammapada 7

Yamaka Vagga

Dhammapada 7:

 subhanupasssiviharantaṁ indriyesu asaṁvutaṁ

bhojanamhi cāmattaññuṁ kusītaṁ hīnavīriyaṁ

taṁ ve pasahati Māro

vāto rukkhaṁva dubbalaṁ.

Karena ia hidup melekat pada kesenangan,

tidak terkendali terhadap nafsu, tidak tahu ukuran makanan,

malas, lemah dalam upaya,

Mara pasti merobohkannya, bagaikan angin terhadap pohon yang lemah.

Living attached to pleasures,
being  unguarded against desires,
not knowing the measure of food, being lazy, lacking energy,
the Evil surely overwhelms him,
like the wind a weak tree.
Pali Vocabulary (1) Vocabulary (2)
viharantaṁ: viharanta (adj. pres.part. of viharati) = living; viharantaṁ (sg. masc. acc.) = livingindriyesu: indriya (nt.) = sense organ indriyesu (pl. loc.) = in senses

bhojanamhi: bhojana (nt.) = food; bhojanamhi (sg. loc.) = in food

kusitaṁ: kusita (adj.) indolent; kusitaṁ (sg. masc. acc.) = indolent

hīnavīriyaṁ: hīna (adj., past part.) derived from √hā ‘reject’ = rejected, low, inferior. viriya (nt.) = energy. hīnavīriya (adj.; here vīriya is m.c. for viriya) = lacking in energy; hīnavīriyaṁ (sg. masc. acc.) = lacking in energy

taṁ (nt. sg. nom. of the personal pron;

ta ‘he, it’ = him

ve ( aff. part. emphasizing the preceding word) = truly, indeed

pasahatī: pasahati (3rd pers.sg. pres. indic. act. of pa (a prefix often used to emphasize the intensity of an action) +√sah ‘overcome’ = overcomes; pasahatī is metri causa (m.c.) for pasahati

māro: māra (masc.) = Māra, the Evil One;

māro (sg. nom.) = Māra

vāto: vāta (masc.) wind; vāto (sg. nom.) = wind

rukkhaṁ: rukkha (masc.) = tree;

rukkhaṁ (sg. acc.) = tree

va (encl.) = like

dubbalaṁ: bala (nt.) = strength; du (antithetic pf.)

‘bad, insufficient’ + bala= dubbala (adj.) = weak;

dubbalaṁ (sg. masc. acc.) = weak

Pali Grammar:

1subhānupassi: (a) subha (adj.) = pleasant, beautiful, delightful, good; anupassī (adj.), comprised of anu- (pf. ‘along, at, on, in, down, to, following, combined with’ +√pass (to see) +  the new poss. sf. –ī * or  the old -in*  (Geiger, 2005: § 95, p.88; Duroiselle, 1915/1997:143) = contemplating; = contemplating;
(b) subha+anupassī= subhānupassī, or subhānupassin (adj., with the euphonic sandhi, or union,** of the final a in subha and the initial a in in subha and the initial a in anupassī or anupassin=  contemplating pleasant, beautiful, delightful, or good thing(-s); subhānupassi (masc. acc.sg.) = contemplating pleasant, beautiful, delightful, or good thing(-s);

*(i)Duroiselle (idem., p.34, No.137) writes that most masc. nouns in ī are not pure substantives, they are adjectives used substantively; their true stem is in in, the Nom. sing. being ī. The true stem of daṇḍī therefore is daṇdin. Properly, all these words belong to the consonantal declension. On page 143 of the same book, he also writes that the suffix ī  is sometimes used substantively (or as a noun), as in the present stanza, so that subhānupassī, or subhānupassin, means one who contemplates pleasant, beautiful, delightful, or good thing(-s);

(ii) Andersen (1907/1996:275) writes “looking only for what is delightful;”  subhānupassiṁ acc. masc.; (iii) Duroiselle (idem, p. 33, No. 136) writes that there are no neuter nouns ending in ī (long i), and Duroiselle (idem, p.34©] writes further that in all the cases of the singular oblique (denoting any case other than the nominative or vocative), the final ī of the stem is shortened before the suffixes, [and hence,  the vowel ī (or long i) in subhānupassī is turned into i (or short i)]. See the declension table below.


Singular                                                        Plural

Nom.      subhānupassī                                               subhānupassī, subhānupassino

Gen.      subhānupassissa, subhānupassino           subhānupassinaṁ

Dat.       subhānupassissa, subhānupassino           subhānupassinaṁ

Acc.       subhānupassiṁ, subhānupassinaṁ         subhānupassī, subhānupassino

Ins.        subhānupassinā                                              subhānupassīhi, subhānupassībhi

Abl.       dandinā, subhānupassismā                       subhānupassīhi, subhānupassībhi

Loc.       subhānupassismiṁ, subhānupassimhi    subhānupassīsu

Voc.      subhānupassī                                               subhānupassī, subhānupassino

 ** (i) Duroiselle (1915/1997:7, No. 17) calls it the elision of the final a in subha and the lengthening of the initial a in anupassī; (ii) Clough (1824:14) calls it the suppression of the final a in subha and the lengthening of the initial a in anupassī; and (iii) Perniola (1915/1997:8) calls it  contraction. He also writes that when a vowel is in a closed syllable, it cannot be long:
kāla+ antare > kālantare. Sometimes, however, in the formation of compounds, there is a long vowel in a closed syllable:
sa-+ attha > sāttha ‘with its meaning; sa-+ akhara > sākkhara ‘with its letters.’  

2viharantaṁ: (a) viharati (3rd pers.sg. pres. indic. act. of vi- (pf., opposite of sa) denoting separation ‘away’ + √har ‘to carry’ = lives; viharanta (adj. pres.part. of viharati) = living; viharantaṁ (sg. masc. acc.) = living, one who, or what, lives; (b) Ānandajoti (2016:10) writes that the ending of the sg. masc. accusative case of the present participle parassapada of nt/nta forms is ntaṁ, as in gacchantaṁ, and the ending of the pl. masc. accusative case of the same parassapada is gacchante; hence, the parassapada above is declined like a noun ending in -a;

(c)   Thitzana [in Kaccāyana Pali Grammar, No. 186.107, Volume 2 (2016), translated by Thitzana] writes that the affix “nta” of the word gacchanta etc. sometimes changes into “aṁ” when a “si” Vibhatti is applied after them.

See each pair of the examples. Both “aṁ and anto” are shown in bold so that students can easily distinguish between the applied example and inapplicable examples. The second one *marked is inapplicable example:

gacchaṁ, * gacchanto (sg. masc. nom.) = the one who goes, while going

mahaṁ, * mahanto (sg. masc. nom.) = the one  who is great or honorable

caraṁ, * caranto (sg. masc. nom.) = the one who goes, while going

khādaṁ, * khādanto (sg. masc. nom.) = the one who munches, while munching.

Hence, viharantaṁ means (sg. masc. acc.) the one who lives.

Declension of vi- + √har- + -nta = viharanta (= the present participle of viharati) for its nominative and accusative cases as an adjective and agent noun:

Cases                  Singular                              plural

Nom.                   viharanto/viharantaṁ            harantā

Acc.                     viharanta                           harante

     [formed following Gair & Karunatillake (2005/2007:36)]

(d)   Gair & Karunatillake (2005/2007:37) write that one use of the present participle is as an actor verbal noun denoting the doer of the action (or agent noun). In this use, it takes the masculine endings given above, if the doer is masculine, or if gender is unspecified:

Evaṁ desento (bhabbo)

‘One who thus preaches (is competent)’

*Gair & Karunatillake (2005/2007:71-72, Lesson V) write that the past participle (sometimes called the perfect or the passive participle) is most commonly formed with one of the two affixes -ta or-na. Of these two, -ta is the most common…. Past participles may also, like the present participle, take gender and number endings to form nouns, in the case of the past participle, the noun will generally refer to the performer of the action (i.e., the subject of the verb) if the verb from which it is formed is intransitive, or the one who has undergone the action, i.e., the object of the verb) if the verb is transitive.* The gender number endings, and their case forms, are those of -a stem masculine and neuter (I, 1.21-2) and -ā stem feminine (11, 1.1) nouns. The form Tathagato (nom.) ‘the thus-gone one,’ used for the Buddha, is an example, being formed from gata, the participle of gacchati.

*For example, √vu means to restrain, a transitive verb; saṁ- + -vu+ -ta = saṁvuta restrained, one who, or what, is or was restrained; the opposite is asaṁvuta ‘unrestrained, one who, or what, is or was unrestrained.’

(This part is also found in the discussion about asavuta below.)

(e) Perniola (1997:282, No.225) writes that in Pali, all the parassapada of the present participle have the suffix -ant, in which the final dental (or t) drops and the -n is chnaged to niggahīta. The suffix -ant has often been extended with the thematic vowel and thus a new suffix -anta is often used in the formation of the present participle. In fact this suffix is the only one used when the present participle is formed from the stem of the present ending in -e or -o: cintenta, karonta. Hence, vi- + √har + -anta > viharanta, the parassapada of the present participle;

(e) About the present participle, Duroiselle
(1915/1997:100, Nos.439-440) writes that (i) all active participles are of the
nature of verbal adjectives and must agree with their nouns, in number, gender
and case; and (ii) The terminations of the present participle active are nta, a,
or ṁ; -nta andare added to the base (or stem), and aṁ is
added to the root.

Root                     Base     Present. Part.                   Active Base
√pac, to cook,    paca      pacaṁ, pacanta               cooking
√kar, to do,        kara      karaṁ, karonta                    doing
√chid, to cut,     chinda   chindaṁ, chindanta          cutting
√bhaṇ, to say,   bhaṇa    bhaṇaṁ, bhaṇanta            saying
√bhū, to be,      bhava    bhavaṁ, bhavanta            being
√pā, to drink,     piva       pivaṁ, pivanta                  drinking

22Ntasaddo=refers to those nouns affixed with “nta” affix. This nta is the last component part of “anta” affix applied bySutta No. 565 which is widely used as a present participle affix for many Kita nouns. Ntasaddo means any noun affixed with “anta” but note that the letter “a” is left out in this expression and simply stated as “ntasaddo”. [nta = nta, saddo=word].

3 asaṁvutaṁ: asaṁvutaṁ: (a) vuta
(past part. of √vu ‘ restrain’ = restrained; saṁ(adj.  pf. implying conjunction and completeness) + vuta* = saṁvuta (adj.) =restrained; a- (neg. pf.) + saṁvuta= asaṁvuta (adj.) = unrestrained; asaṁvutaṁ (sg. masc. acc.) = who, or what, is or was unrestrained;  (b) the past participle is used as an adjective or a noun describing a past action (NCRP, p. 20, Section  6.4); hence, asaṁvuta also means what was unrestrained; (c)(i) A. Bhikkhu (2021:112-4) writes that past participles are used as adjectives and must agree with their nouns in number, gender, and case; (ii) past passive participles which are used as adjectives may either precede or succeed the substantive noun they qualify (e.g., subhāvitaṁ cittaṁ ‘the well-developed mind’); (iii) when modifying a noun or pronoun, their meaning does not necessarily have to be past (e.g., bhīnenna sīsena ‘with broken head’)…; (iv) as substantive nouns, past passive participles may act as substantive nouns, too, including action and agent nouns [with the first-mentioned type being in the neuter gender, e.g., dinnaṁ ‘giving;’ pabbajito ‘one who has gone forth (i.e., a monk)’].

*vuta: (a) Ānandajoti (2016:8) writes that a past participle is formed from a root with the suffix -ta or -ita or -na: (i) √sar ‘remembers’ + -ta = sata ‘remembered,’ patissața ‘recollecting, thoughtful, mindful, minding;’ (ii) √su ‘hears’ + -ta = suta ‘heard;’ with some final nasals
dropping: √gam ‘goes’ + -ta = gata ‘gone;’ √nam ‘bends’ + -ta = nata ‘bent;’ √han  ‘kills’ + -ta = hata ‘killed;’ formed with -ta: √mud ‘rejoieces’ + -ita = mudita ‘rejoiced; formed with -na: √chad ‘cuts’ + -ta = chatta ‘cut’ with the assimilation of the final d into n;  √bhas ‘speaks’ + -ita = bhasita ‘spoken.’ The past participle is declined like nouns (ending in -a), but all can be used like adjectives, e.g., bhasitam = what was said, and it also means a speech, a
(b) Gair & Karunatillake (2005/2007:71-72, Lesson V) write that the past participle (sometimes called the perfect or the passive participle) is most commonly formed with one of the two affixes -ta or-na. Of these two, -ta is the most common…. Past participles may also, like the present participle, take gender and number endings to form nouns, in the case of the past participle, the noun will generally refer to the performer of the action (i.e., the subject of the verb) if the verb from which it is formed is intransitive, or the one who has undergone the action, i.e., the object of the verb) if the verb is transitive.* The gender number endings, and their case forms, are those of -a stem masculine and neuter (I, 1.21-2) and -ā stem feminine (11, 1.1) nouns. The form Tathagato
(nom.) ‘the thus-gone one,’ used for the Buddha, is an example, being formed
from gata, the participle of gacchati.

*For example, √vu means to restrain, a transitive verb;
saṁ- + -vu+ -ta = saṁvuta restrained, one who, or what, is or was restrained;
the opposite is asaṁvuta ‘unrestrained, one who, or what, is or was

(c) Duroiselle (1915/1917: 102-105) writes that the
participles in ta and na are declined like purisa (masc.), kaññā (fem.), and
rūpaṁ (neuter) (No. 452) and that the passive perfect participle is very widely
used. It is is formed from the root by affixing to it the suffix ta or the
suffix na (Note: Duroiselle does not use a hyphen before ta and na). The suffix
ta is by far the most commonly used in the formation of this participle. The
suffix ta is affixed in several ways:

(i) If the root ends in a vowel, it is added directly
without any change taking place in the root.
(ii) when the root ends in a consonant, ta may be joined to it by means of connecting vowel i.
(iii) when the root ends in a consonant, ta may be assimilated to it according to the usual rules.

452.     (i) Roots ending in a vowel:
Root                               Present                            Pass. Perf. Part.
√nahā, to bathe           nahāyati, he bathes             nahāta, bathed
√bū, to be, become     bhavati, he is, becomes       bhūta, been, become
√nī, to lead                  neti, nayati, he leads            nīta, led
√ji, to conquer             jeti,jayati, he conquers         jita, conquered
√ci, to collect               cināti, he collects                 cita, collected
√bhī, to be afraid        bhāyati, he is afraid              bhīta, afraid, frightened
√yā, to go undergo     yāti, he goes.                       yāta, gone, undergone
√ñā, to know               jānāti, he knows                  ñāta, known

Remarks. There are a few exceptions to roots in final ā:
√pā, to drink, makes pita, drunk
√ṭhā, to stand, makes ṭhita, stood, standing
√dhā, to hold, becomes hita, held
√dā, to give, dinna, given

(ii)        Roots ending in a consonant and taking vowel i before ta:
Root                           Present                                      Pass. Perf. Part.
√pac, to cook              pacati, he cooks                       pacita, cooked
√cal, to shake             calati; he shakes.                     calita, shaken
√gah, to take              gaṇhāti, he takes                      gahita, taken
√kapp, to arrange      kappeti, he arranges                 kappita arranged
√khād, to eat             khādati, he eats                         khadita, eaten
√likh, to write             likhati, he writes                         likhita, written
√maṇḍ, to adorn.        maṇḍeti, he adorns                   maṇḍita, adorned
√gil, to swallow           gilati, he swallows                     gilita, swallowed
√kath, to tell               katheti, he tells                          kathita, told

Remarks. (a) Participles like pacita, calita, etc, are declined like purisa, kaññā and rūpaṁ.
(b) In the Neuter these participles are often used as nouns:
√has, to smile, Passive Perfect Participle (P.P.P.): hasita, smiled, Neuter: hasita, a smile
√gajj, to thunder, P.P.P.: gajjitta, thundered, Neuter: gajjita, the thunder
√jīv, to live, P.P.P.: jīvita, lived, Neuter: jīvita, life
(iii)       ta assimilated to the root

453.   The suffix ta assimilates, or is assimilated, to the last consonant of the root:

Root.                         P. P. P.                                         Rules of Assimilation
√bhuj, to eat              bhutta, eaten                                (59, a)
√muc, to free             mutta, freed                                  (59, b)
√is, to wish                iṭṭha, wished                                 (59, ii-iii)
√kas, to plough          kaṭṭha, ploughed                          (92)
√ḍas, to bite              daṭṭha, bitten                                 (92)
√dam, to tame           danta, tamed                                 (67)
√kam, to proceed        kanta, proceeded, gone                (67)
√rudh, to obstruct        ruddha,obstructed                       (63)
√budh, to know           buddha, known                            (63)
√labh, to obtain           laddha, obtained                          (63, Remark.)
√majj, to polish            maṭṭha (also maṭṭa), polished        (59, i)
√muh, to err                muḷha, erred, also muddha           (100,101,102)
√ruh, to ascend           rūḷha, ascended                          (100,101,102)
√lih, to lick                 liḷha, licked                                  (100,101,102)
√jhas, to hurt             jhatta, hurt                                   (94)
√pat, to fall,               patta, fallen                                (62)
√tap, to burn              tatta, burned                               (64, i)
√duh, to milk             duddha, milked                          (100)

454.     (a) Roots in r generally drop the r before ta:
Root.                         P. P. P.                       Rules of Assimilation.
√kar, to make           kata made                    (81)
√sar, to remember  sata,* remembered        (81)
√mar, to die             mata, dead                     (81)

*sata: one who, or what, is or was remembered;

Note: In sati ‘memory,’ as written by Duroiselle(1915/1997:145, No. 576), the suffix -ti forms an action noun. The suffix -ti forms a very numerous class of action nouns, feminine, agent nouns, and a limited number of adjectives. For examples, (fem.) √bhaj ‘to divide’ + -ti = bhakti (No. 426, remark,59,a), division …; √gam + -ti = gati ‘a going, journey….

455.     (b) Roots in n generally drop final n before ta:
√man, to think mata, thought
√khan, or khaṇ, to dig khata (also: khāta, from a collateral form khā=khan), dug.
√han, to kill      hata, killed
456.     (c) sometimes final ṁ is also dropped.
√gam, to go     gata, gone.
√ram, to sport  rata, amused, delighted

457.     (d) In a few cases, final r lingualizes the following t, as:
√har, to seize, carry; haṭa, seized, carried.
458.     Pass.Perf. Part. which take na:
The suffix na is much less common than ta, and like it:
(i)         lt may be joined to the root by means of connecting vowel i, or
(ii)        it may be joined directly to roots ending in a vowel;
(iii)       when added directly to roots ending in a consonant, that consonant is assimilated to n of na, and sometimes the n of na is assimilated to the final consonant.

Remarks. na is added generally to roots in d and r.
459.     EXAMPLES OF (i)
Root                Pass P. P.       Rules of Assimilation.
√sad, to settle sinna, settled   (69, ii, iii)

Remarks. The form sinna is found only for the verb nisīdati, to sit down= √sad+ni (prefix); when √sad is preceded by other prefixes, the Passive Perfect Participle assumes the form; sanna, as:
sad-ava=Passive Perfect Participle: ava sanna, sunk, settled.
sad+pa=Passive Perfect Participle: pasanna, settled.
(Note that the base of root sad is sīda.)
Root                    Pass P. P.                     Rules of Assimilation.
√chid, to cut        chinna, cut                    (69, ii, iii)
√chad, to cover   channa, covered           (69, ii, iii)
√dā, to give         dinna, given                   (69 ii, iii)

In this last example, ā of the root has been dropped, and the n doubled to compensate for its loss; the form datta given. (=dā+ta, with the t doubled to make for the shortening of ā), is found some- times.
Remarks. It will be seen from the above four examples that the insertion of i is to a great extent optional.

√tar, to cross   tiṇṇa, crossed (83)
√car, to wander           ciṇṇa, wandered         (83)
√kir, to scatter kiṇṇa, scattered          (83)
Remarks. In these examples, i is inserted and then reduplicated and lingualized according to rule (83).
460.     EXAMPLES OF (iii)
Root                            Pass P. P.            Rules of Assimilation.
√bhaj, to break            bhagga, broken           (57)
√vij, to be agitated       vigga, agitated             (57)

In these two examples, final j of the root, having become, against the usual phonetic laws g, the n of suffix na, is assimilated to it by rule 57 (426, Remark).
√lag, to adhere            lagga, adhered            (57).

461.     EXAMPLES OF (ii):
√lī, to cling to,  līna, clung to
√lū, to cut, reap,          lūna, reaped, cut
√khi, to decay, cease, khīna, decayed. (final i is lengthened)
√gilā (glā 113), to be ill,          gilāna, ill
√hā, to be weak, low,  hīna, low, wasted, inferior

In the last example, radical ā is replaced by ī.

462.     A few Passive Perfect Participles are irregular, such as: jhāma, burnt, from √jhā, to burn; phulla, expanded, split, from √phal, to expand, split; but these are properly speaking derivative adjectives used as participles.
463.     Sometimes two forms of the Passive Perfect Participles for the same root are met with:
√lag, to adhere            P. P. P. lagga and lagita
√gam, to go                P. P. P. gata and gamita
√dā, to give                 P. P. P. dinna and datta
√kas, to plough           P.P. P. kaṭṭha and kasita
464.   The participles in ta and na are declined like purisa, kaññā, and rupaṁ
(b) Ānandajoti (idem., p.13) writes that nouns are normally declined on the stem form of the word, with the endings changing to match their role or function in the sentence. There are three basic sets of declension in Pali: the masculine (including, with small variations, the neuter), the feminine, and the pronominal. The masculine is the most common, but as it will also take some pronominal endings, they are often found and become more common in the later (period of the Pali) language. There is also a tendency for all words to follow the masculine declension in the later  (period of the Pali) language, so that neuters and occasionally feminines are found declined with masculine endings….

Declensions of asaṁvuta, a masculine noun, following Tilbe (1899:19-20, No.127):127):
singular                                                       plural
Nom. asaṁvuto                                      asaṁvutā
Gen.    asaṁvutassa                                  asaṁvutānaṁ
Dat.    asaṁvutassa                                   asaṁvutanaṁ
Acc.    asaṁvutaṁ                                     asaṁvute
Ins.    asaṁvutena*                                 asaṁvutehi, asaṁvutebhi**
Abl.    asaṁvutā                                          asaṁvutehi,
asaṁvutasmā                                           asaṁvutebhi**
Loc. asaṁvute,                                              asaṁvutesu
asaṁvutasmiṁ, asaṁvutamhi
Voc. asaṁvuta, asaṁvutā                               asaṁvutā

 *asaṁvutena: (a) euphonic combination or union, or sandhi,* of asaṁvuta and the 3rd. pers. sg. masc. or neuter instrumentative suffix -ena ‘with, by’ with the elision or suppression sometimes of the final vowel in the first word (Tilbe, 1899:7, No.67), in this case asaṁvuta, or of either the final vowel in the first word or the initial vowel of the second word, e.g., pana ime ‘but these’ > either paname or panime (Clough, 1824:9, No.18), or pana’me; tena+ime = tena’me (Duroiselle, 1915/1997:8, No. 21(b));  (b) when two different vowels come together, in this matter the final a in paduṭṭha and the initial e in -ena, usually the first, i.e., the final a, is elided and the second vowel, i.e., the initial e is lengthened if it happens to be in an open syllable: purisa ‘man’ + -ena > purisena ‘with a man;’ buddha-uppādo > buddhuppādo ‘the arising of a buddha;’ mano-indriya > manoindriya ‘the faculty of .3the mind.’
** (i) The forms in –bhi are mostly poetic (Tilbe, 1899: 10); (ii) The suffix –ebhi is mostly used in poetry and probably comes from the Vedic -ebhis [Duroiselle, 1915/1997:27(f), No.122], or archaic (Geiger, 1916/2005:73).
(ii) the nominative plural case in -ā of neuter stems is not rare in the first two periods, namely, Gāthā and canonical prose periods, of the language: rupā ‘figure’ Th 455; sotā ‘ears’ Sn 345; nettā ‘eyes’ Thī 257; phalā ‘fruits’ Ja IV 203. These forms were still felt to be neuter, e.g., tin’ assa lakkhanā gatte Sn 1019; moghā (cty: moghāni); te assupariphanditāni Ja III 24.25. They correspond to the Vedic pl. forms in -ā, e.g., yugā ‘yokes’ (Geiger, § 78, p.71.6).

 asaṁ- or sa, an indeclinable prefix to verbal roots:* (1) implying a conjunction, e.g., with, together;’ (2) denoting (i) ’completeness,’  (opposite vi-):
(a)Duroiselle (1915/1997:14, No. 38) writes that the niggahīta when followed by a consonant may remain unchanged.
             (i)            ta dhamma kata; (ii) ta khaņa; (iii) ta patto

            (b) Nasal-nasal: a nasal consonant (ń, ñ, ņ, n, or m) followed by another nasal consonant, is assimilated to the latter: saṁ-nisīdati > sannisīdati ‘he sinks down’ (Perniola, 2001:23, No.15(a);

 a.1sam– before a vowel, e.g., samativijjhati derived from sam+ativijjhati sam+ativijjhati;
a.2saṁ– before (i) a surd (or sibilant)  (s), labial (b, bh, m, p, or ph), or glide (or semi-vowel) (y,* or v):, e.g., saṁsara, Saṁbuddha,* saṁyojana,b saṁyutta;b

* Saṁbuddha: (a) sam- + buddha, or buddha, derived from budh ‘to enlighten’ + -ta (a past participle suffix ; if formed from a transitive verb, it makes a passive meaning ; otherwise, it
forms an active meaning) = budhta > buddha ‘enlightened.’ This is as written by Perniola [1997:17, No.13(a)] that when two mute consonants come together, the first is assimilated to the second since both are of the same strength:
yuj-ta > yutta ‘joined’
mad-ta > matta ‘intoxicated’
tadkāro > takkāro ‘he who does that’
sat-puriso > sappuriso ‘good man.’
The consonant t, however, preceded by one of the soft aspirate consonants
gh, dh, or bh, is first shortened to d and then assimilation takes place:
labh-tum > labh-dum > laddhum ‘to bobtain’
lubh-ta > lubhda > luddha ‘greedy’
budh-ta > budh-da > buddha ‘enlightened ;’
(b) Duroiselle (ibid.,p 18, No.63) writes that when initial t follows a sonant aspirate
(gh, jh, ḍh, dh, or bh),  the assimilation is progressive: the final sonant aspirate loses its aspiration, the following t (surd) becomes sonant, viz. d, and, taking the aspiration which the final sonant has lost, becomes dh:

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Remark: In the case of final bh, initial t having become dh, regressive assimilation takes
place: √labh + ta = labh + da = lab + dha = laddha ‘(having) taken, obtained, received;’ (labhati ‘obtains, takes, receives’)
a.2.1 by assimilation, also san– before a dental (d, dh, t, th, or n), e.g., santapeti, sandahati;    a.3saṅ– or saṇ before a guttural (or velar) (k, kh, g, gh, and ṅ) or aspirate (h), e.g.,  (i)saṅgha ‘assembly, community, brotherhood, sisterhood, order, or a chapter of a certain Buddhist order, or a certain number of monks;’  (ii) saṅkhāra, saṅkhata, asaṅkheyya, saṇṭhana ‘configuration, position;’ (iii) saha ‘smooth, gentle, mild,’ (Andersen, 1907/1996:253); saheti ‘to brush down’ (Davids, 1921-1925/2005, Part VI, p.131);’ (iv) saṁ+hițțhati > saṇṭhițțhati ‘stands;’ saṁ+hānaṁ > saṇṭhānaṁ ‘position’ (called as assimilation or adaptation by Perniola, 1997:14, No.11(b)]
a.4sañ- (i) before a palatal (c, ch, j, jh, or ñ), e.g., sañcarati [also found in Perniola, 1997:14, No.11(b)], sañchidati ‘to cut, ‘to destroy,’ sañjāti ‘birth, origin, outcome;’ sañjagghati ‘to joke,’ sañña ‘perception,’ viññū ‘intelligent, wise, learned, knowledgable;’ (ii) before a word beginning with e and the  ñ, the initial e changes into ññ: ta+eva= taññeva, paccantaraṁ+eva= paccantaraññeva; (iii) before a word beginning with h: eva hi kho= evañhi kho, ta+hitassa= tañhitassa (Duroiselle,1915/1997:14, No.40) [see also a.3(iii)];
a.5(i)sal- before the liquids l, ļ or ļh, e.g., sallakhetti ‘to observe,’ sallapati ‘to talk with;’ sa-before the liquid r, sometimes sā-, e.g., sāratta, sārambha (Davids, 1921-1925/2005, Part IV:114,  Geiger, 2005, Section 74.3, & the present author’s  own research);
(ii) Before initial l, the niggahita of sa and pu is changed to l:
(i) saṁ+lakkhaṇā=sallakkhaṇā; (ii) paṭi saṁ līno=paṭisallīno; (iii) saṁ+lekko=sallekho
(Duroiselle, 1915/1997:14, No.39); (iv)
puṁ+ligaṁ = pulligaṁ (idem., No.39);

a.6 Duroiselle( idem., No.39) writes that the niggahīta, when followed by a
consonant, may be transformed into the nasal of the class to which that
consonant belongs.
EXAMPLES with (the explanatory notes in the parentheses being added by the present author):

(ix)            raṇaṁ+jaho=ranañjaho (ñ belongs to the guttural (or velar) consonant class or group, consisting of g, gh, k, kh, and ń);

(x)           taṇhaṁ+karo=taṇhańkaro;

(xi)          saṁ+ṭhito=saṇṭhito (ṇ belongs to the cerebral or retroflex) consonant class or group, consisting of ț, th, ḍ, ḍh, and ṇ);

(xii)          jutiṁ+dharo=jutindharo (n belongs to the dental consonant class or group, consisting of d, dh, t, th, and n);

(xiii)         saṁ+mato=sammato (m belongs to the (bi-)labial consonant class or group, consisting of b, bh, p, ph, and m);

(xiv)          evaṁ+kho=evań kho [see (i)];

(xv)         dhammaṁ+ca=dhammañca (ñ belongs to the palatal consonant class or group, consisting of c, ch, j, jh, and ñ);

(xvi)       taṁ+niccutaṁ=taññiccutaṁ;      

 bsaṁ- + yogo: the niggahīta following y is assimilated into the y, and both together may become ññ: saññogo                  

saṁ- + yutta: saññutta
Often, no coalescence takes place, and both letters remain unchanged:
saṁyuttaṁ, saṁyojanaṁ (Duroiselle, 1915/1997:14, No.41).

 Examples taken by the present author from the other stanzas of the Dhammapada:
31: saṁyojanaṁ >saññojanaṁ
37: saṁyamessanti > saññamessanti

*(Davids, 1921-1925/2005, Part IV:114,  Geiger, 2005, Section 74.3, & Tjan’s own research)

Davids (ibid.) writes that saṁ- (or sa) is the second most frequently (16%) used prefix in Pali after vi- (19%).

4cāmattaññuṁ: ca (indef. encl. part.) ‘and;’ mattā (fem.) ‘(right) measure;’ In cpds. as in this case, mattā is shortened to matta (Davids, 1921-1925/2005, Part VI, p.141 & Duroiselle, 1915/1997:13, No. 35);
ñu (adj. derived from √ña ‘to know’= knowing; mattaññū* (masc.) = knowing the right measure, i.e., knowing moderation; a- (neg. pf.) + mattaññū= amattaññū (masc.) = not knowing moderation; amattaññuṁ (sg. masc. acc.) = not knowing moderation; ca+amattaññuṁ= cāmattaññuṁ

*mattaññū = mattā + ñū where the final ā is shortened to a  and the initial ñ is reduplicated. Duroiselle 1915/1997:13, No. 33) writes that a consonant following a word or a particle ending in a vowel is generally reduplicated.
Examples: (i) idha + pamādo = idhappamādo; (i) vi + vippayuto = vippayuto; (iii) kata + ñu = kataññu. He remarks that (a) l and v after a vowel becomes bb: (i) ni + vānaṁ = nibbānaṁ; (ii) ni + vāyati = nibbāyait; (iii) du + vinicchayo = dubbinichhayo; (b) reduplication of the consonants takes place generally after the prefixes u, upa, pari, ati, pa, a, anu, etc.
Duroiselle (ibid., No.34) further writes that the vowel preceding a conjunct consonant (or double consontant), being prosodically long, the naturally long vowels ā, ī, and ū, are not allowed to stand before a double consonant.
Exceptions to Rules No. 34 & 35: (i) na + aññna = nañña; (ii)na + assa = nāssa; (iii) na + assu = nāssu; (iv) kasmā + assa = kasmāssa; (v) tatra + assa+ tatrāssa.  

5Māro/Māra: (i) Mara stands for all that is antithetical to the religious enterprise. Variously represented as an evil being of great power out to wreck the religious life of persons, as defiling forces of the psyche, the five aggregates of which the psycho-psychal personality is made up, the influences of past karma, and, somewhat differently, Death itself. Also called King of Death, End-Maker, etc (Carter & Palihawadana, 2000:72); (ii) in this context kilesamara, the defilements hindering the realization of Nibbana (Tin, 2003:4).

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